EdTech 513: Project #5: Coherence Analysis

“According to the Coherence Principle, you should avoid adding any material that does not support the instructional goal” (Clark & Mayer, 2008, pg. 151). It also suggests that e-lessons should avoid the following:

  1. Extraneous audio
  2. Extraneous graphics
  3. Extraneous words

An example of a successful attempt to apply the Coherence Principle would be to simply have a presentation slide with only what is necessary to teach the instructional goal. This could include a graphic and minimal text such as a headline, or labels of the graphic. An example presentation slide of this is shown below. There is no extraneous audio included and only necessary graphics and text are included. By eliminating extraneous audio, graphics, and words, channels will be able to process and apply what is being taught to the overall instructional goal, in this case learning the 4 parts of an advertising layout.

Ad layout

A bad example of applying the Coherence Principle can be found in Figure 8.2 on page 154 in e-Learning and the Science of Instruction. This is a poor example because it displays information about ammunition, while having background sounds with explosions. This audio is not necessary and is most likely distracting, violating the avoiding extraneous audio rule of this principle.

I have definitely seen this principle be violated and have most likely violated it in my own classroom! An example of a violation is when I had students create a PowerPoint project about themselves. When presenting the PowerPoint, a student used sound effects as the text was entering the slide. The sound they used was a typewriter for each word on the screen. Not only was this distracting to the audience and quite annoying, but it also took away from the oral presentation. In correlation with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, “background sounds can overload or disrupt the cognitive system, so the narration and the extraneous sounds must compete for limited cognitive resources in the auditory channel” (Clark & Mayer, 2008, pg. 156). This would take away from the overall instructional goal of the presentation.

So far in this course, we have learned about the following multimedia principles:

  • Multimedia: Include both words and graphics
  • Contiguity: Place words near corresponding graphics
  • Modality: Present words as speech rather than on-screen text
  • Redundancy: Do not add on-screen text to narrated graphics
  • Coherence: Avoid extraneous audio, text, and words

I believe that all of these principles work well with one another and the main goal is to achieve the instructional objective, while minimizing cognitive overload of channels. Learning about these principles has really made me think about past, current, and future presentations that I create. I know that I have violated some, if not all of these principles and in the future I plan to apply each to make my presentations more effective by minimizing the cognitive load for students.

Fundamental theories of psychology come into play when applying the Coherence Principle. By simplifying to only what is necessary to reach the instructional goal, channels will be able to process information more efficiently, allowing information to be better processed in the working memory.

What I like about this principle is that it supports that simplicity is a good thing. Many times as educators, we try to make these elaborate presentations that would actually be more effective if we followed that “less is sometimes better”. By eliminating extraneous audio, graphics, and words, students won’t experience cognitive overload.

Although the findings of this principle are backed up well by research, I appreciate that this textbook notices that there is still work to be done. There are challenges and unknowns about the Coherence Principle. One challenge in particular is determining if this principle applies to high-knowledge learners. “The challenge for instructional professionals is to stimulate interest without adding extraneous material that distracts from the cognitive objective of the lesson (Clark & Mayer, 2008, pg. 173). Further research would need to be completed in order to determine if there are ways to incorporate words/graphics while supporting the instructional goal and promoting interest. Now that I know about this principle, I plan to not only update my own lessons, but also teach these principles to my students for any presentations that they create.


Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2008). E-learning and the science of instruction, 2nd edition. Pfeiffer: San Francisco, CA.

EdTech 513: Project #3: Haiku Deck

I really enjoyed the simplicity and ease of use of Haiku Deck. This site allows you to create PowerPoint-like presentations, but limits your text. My goal was to have as little of text possible on each slide and have the main parts of the presentation be the visuals. Haiku Deck is awesome in that it allows you to search over 40 million images that fit your presentation needs. In addition, if you use the images provided by the site, it cites the photos used for you! How awesome!

For my presentation, I decided to do the basics of the marketing mix, also known as the 4 P’s (product, price, place, and promotion). This concept is the foundation of marketing. When using Haiku Deck, I learned that what I am teaching can easily be expressed in less text and awesome visuals. I love how I was able to keep each slide simple with just a picture and the topic that I was discussing as the title text. The slide notes allow for me to expand on what I would like to teach. This allows for a clean look and delivery of information, without the chaos of an overwhelming slide of text. I think this site would be great for not only teacher presentations, but student presentations as well. Not allowing a lot of text forces users to keep it to only what is absolutely necessary and then expand on each topic as they present. I believe this type of presentation would benefit audience engagement.

I will definitely be looking into using this site again. One disappointment was that you only get a 7 day free trial and then after there is a fee. However, I loved how easy it was to use and how it forced me to simplify my presentation! Click the link below to see my Haiku Deck:

Marketing Mix Haiku Deck

EdTech 513: Project #2: Static Multimedia Instruction

Learning Objectives: After viewing this tutorial, the learner will be able to successfully log in,  access, and save a document to their OneDrive student account.

Students will follow the 8 steps to complete the learning objectives. Please click the document to view the steps and corresponding screen shots.

I absolutely loved using Clarify and I am looking forward to using this tool in the future! I created instructions using screen shots before, but have never used a program that was this easy to use. It has all the tools that I need to screen shot, type steps that go with each picture, draw arrows and add boxes to highlight the part of the picture I am referring to, and so much more! I will be able to create tutorials in half the time it took me in the past. I also passed this tool on to our school’s technology specialist because I was so impressed by its ease of use and features.

The process for creating this tutorial first began by outlining the necessary steps to complete the learning objective. Then, I went through the process myself and took the screen shots along the way. Finally, I added in an additional notes, boxes, and arrows to highlight parts of the pictures that I felt would be beneficial to the learner.

This instructional tutorial demonstrates both the multimedia principle and contiguity principle 1. The multimedia principle recommends that “e-learning courses include words and graphics rather than words alone” (Clark & Mayer, 2008, pg. 70). I definitely agree with this principle as well as contiguity principle 1 that takes it a step further. This principle expresses the “need to coordinate words and graphics” (Clark & Mayer, 2008, pg. 93). In this assignment, this was accomplished by having the instructions in a step by step format right next to the picture of step that it was describing. I believe it is so important for a combination of text and graphics to be used when giving instructions. This gives learners another reference to make sure that they are on the right track. In addition, it saves time by being able to match their screen with the pictures and instructions.


Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2008). E-learning and the science of instruction. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

EdTech 513: Project #1: Sketchnote

For this week’s assignment, we were to read Ch. 4 and 5 in e-Learning and the Science of Instruction and create a Sketchnote on one of the given topics. I chose to create my Sketchnote on Contiguity Principle #1 which “involves the need to coordinate printed words and graphics” (Clark & Mayer, 2008, pg. 93). I downloaded the app SketchBook, and began by playing around with it and exploring all of its features. After I felt more comfortable with the tools and features, I brainstormed how I would explain the principle through a Sketchnote.

First, I wrote the name of the principle. Then I added in a description of what it entails by writing words + graphics = and then I drew a picture of a light bulb to symbolize learning. For my example of the principle, I drew a simple picture of a flower. I used different colors for each part of the flower and then labeled each part by writing the name of the part and drawing arrows with corresponding colors. The Sketchnote is displayed below.


I really enjoyed working with SketchBook and exploring all of its features. It was a little difficult to get used to and I went back and forth from using a stylus and my finger. Tools that I used included pencil, pen, marker, spray painter, shape/line, text,  and the eraser. I was easily able to change the thickness and color of the tools that I was using. Challenges that I faced were getting it to look EXACTLY how I wanted it to. Although this was not necessary, having the option to quickly undo what I had drawn became a bad habit. It took me MUCH longer than it should have because I overused this button. If I were just drawing this Sketchnote out, I think it would have been interesting because there would have been little room for error and I wouldn’t have had the undo option. Another challenge that I faced was that I originally used the text tool to write the words. This created new layers in the project. I soon realized that with the free version, you are only allowed three layers. I had more words than I had layers so I had to go back and write them myself.

I learned that using Sketchnote apps such as SketchBook to promote visual learning would be great in the classroom. Currently, I try to have students create pictures that help them understand words and definitions as much as I can. I am a strong believer that this process helps them better understand marketing concepts. I think that even if you cannot create the “best” images, whatever you create will still help you learn the material better. The extra time spent adding graphics to represent words will deepen the knowledge learned and will benefit students long-term. I am looking forward to using the Sketchnote technique in my classroom!


Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2008). E-learning and the science of instruction. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

EdTech 541: Integrating Technology into Classroom Curriculum

I am so excited to be taking this course! Today, I explored Weebly, and began creating my own web page for this course. I really enjoyed how easy the site was to navigate and all the options that are available. My goal for the next school year is to create a class website. Wix and Weebly will definitely be my top choices as web platforms! Check out my course website here.

As a marketing teacher, I am always looking for new and fun ways to integrate technology into the classroom. Our assignment for this week was to create an I Am poem using the provided format and then add and image that symbolizes us. I liked this assignment a lot and appreciated the freedom to express oneself. It was fun to get to know my classmates by reading their poems as well. This would be a great intro activity for high school students and incorporates technology well. Below is my I Am poem. Looking forward to an awesome semester!



EdTech 543: Final Reflection

Crazy that another semester in the EdTech program is coming to an end! I can remember when I was considering the EdTech program at Boise State and recall seeing this course as an elective option, thinking how awesome it would be to take a course such as this. I can honestly say that this has been one of my favorite courses in this program so far and have gotten so much out of it! Here are the key components that I have learned from this course and how I will apply them to my professional practice.

Social Media Interactions Set Up (Module 1): The basic set ups for this course helped me to realize that there are several platforms that can be used for classroom communication. I look forward to incorporating this into the courses that I teach, by using something such as Google Sites, a class Facebook page, or Edmodo to post announcements, assignments, and a place for collaboration.

PLE & PLN (Module 2): I now know what these acronyms stand for! I loved creating my PLE diagram and seeing the uniqueness of everyone else. I loved that we got to create our diagram using the platform of our choice. It was awesome to be able to develop a PLN within the course. This really helped with any questions that I had, I always knew that I would have people there to help. Our group ended up working very well together and I appreciate the team effort, as this is not always, especially in an online course. Developing a PLN within this course opened my eyes to see the importance of having a PLN not only where you work, but outside your school as well. There are so many people around the world that you can connect with and can benefit from. I am happy to say that I joined an amazing PLN group on Facebook of business educators that are willing to share ideas and resources with one another. I hope to stay in contact with Katie, Ben, and Jasmine, my amazing PLN members!

TweekDeck, Live PD, & Digital Footprints (Module 3): Before this course, I had no idea what a TweetDeck was. I have learned not only how to use this site, but also utilized it when participating in Twitter chats. The live PD was very beneficial as well. I especially enjoyed the Twitter chats. I was able to make new connections through these chats, gain numerous resources that I can use right away, and expand my PLN. I plan to not only use these resources, but participate in more Twitter chats in the future. I think live PD is an a different, yet rewarding way of learning through collaboration and interaction. I would definitely suggest this to others. The idea of digital footprints was also introduced in this module. I think this was a very important assignment and something that is quite relevant to the business and marketing courses that I teacg. I am excited to incorporate this into a lesson with my high school students and also use it to discuss brand and company images through the words and pictures that they post on social media and online.

Curation (Moduel 4): It took me awhile to understand what the word curation actually meant. I appreciated be able to explore this module with my PLN and I think our group did a great job of creating our curation criteria. I loved using my new resource ScoopIt, and look forward to using it in the future to curate content. In addition, I really benefited from examining my group’s curated data. It allowed me to explore new resources and ideas that I probably wouldn’t have otherwise learned about.

PLE Diagram (Module 5): This was an assignment that I thought I would struggle with to come up with something unique from everyone else, but it ended up being one of my favorite assignments! As mentioned, I loved the freedom to create your own interpretation of the assignment using the platform of you choice. Through assignments such as this, I was able to explore sites such as Piktochart and Canva. This assignment was one of my favorites because I was able to make it personal to me. Through this assignment, I realized the numerous parts that make up my personal learning environment, that it has really grown since the beginning of this course, and that it will only continue to expand!

Research & Social Media Policies (Module 6): The research assignment allowed me to explore how business and marketing teachers incorporate social media in their classrooms. I got so much out of this assignment and can’t wait to incorporate the resources that I acquired next semester! The other assignment had has look at different social media policies and then create our own. Again, I was able to use Piktochart to create my own set of social media policies that I will be able to use in my classes as guidelines for proper social media use.

Social Media Mini Unit (Module 7): This assignment allowed me to work with my awesome PLN once again. I think our group worked very well together and I realized how easily technology and social media can be incorporated into any subject. I look forward to enhancing my social media unit that I had last year for my Marketing II students, I know there is so much more that I can include from this course! I also enjoyed the peer review process through a screen cast. This was a great idea and allowed me to see what others did for their social media mini units. I would like to incorporate a peer-review process such as this in my classroom in the future.

It is obvious that I gained multiple resources and learned so much from this course! I am excited to transfer what I have learned through this course into my own classroom and know my students will greatly benefit. I give myself a 75/75 points on my blog posts because I was always very thorough in each post, made sure that I had everything included that was expected in the requirements, and was reflective throughout. Thank you all for an awesome semester, only 3 more classes to go! 🙂


EdTech 543: Social Media Policies

According to the Papillion La Vista Community School District social media policy, “Free speech protects individuals who want to participate in social media, but the laws and courts have ruled that school districts can discipline employees if their speech, including online postings, disrupts school operations.” This is an important message to send to both students and staff and is the foundation of creating and enforcing a social media policy.

For this week’s assignment, we were to examine current social media policies within our  own school and other school districts. I was able to easily find multiple social media policies that are currently being utilized by other high school districts. After exploring these resources, I created a graphic that has 5 main categories. Each category has individual policies that I found important aspects of a social media policy. This social media policy is designed to be used in my own classroom.

Steps to Ensure Feedback: If I were to actually incorporate this social media policy in my classroom, I would first discuss these policies and their importance with the parents of my students at the open house our school hosts at the beginning of the school year. Then, I would discuss the policies with each of my classes. Students would have the opportunity to provide feedback and voice their opinions on any additional policies that they find important. After receiving feedback from my students, I would finalize the classroom policies and schedule a meeting with my school’s team of administrators and the district communication representative. I would invite a few student representatives to attend the meeting and have them explain their roles in formulating these policies. We would then share the classroom policies and discuss its alignment with the current district policies. I would ask for any feedback or suggestions to improve the policies and make changes as necessary.  The social media policies would be reviewed annually and I would incorporate a student/parent signature aspect to hold students accountable. This social media policy poster would be displayed in the classroom.


Bishop Lynch High School – Dallas, TX: This social media policy provides a participation policy and guidelines for faculty and students. Although a simple list was provided, it could end up being confusing to users, as it communicates what not to do.

Cornwall-Lebanon School District – Lebanon, PA: This social media policy provides guidelines for multiple social media platforms. In addition, I enjoyed that the policy gives examples of acceptable use, disclaimers, and personal responsibility.

Guilford County Schools – Greensboro, NC: This policy was one of the best. It is well-organized and easy to follow. It provides guidelines for professional responsibility and general social media use as well. My favorite policies that I read were that you are always representing your school and that the district incorporated the importance of posting and being active members on social media.

Lodi High School – Lodi, CA: This social media policy was created for the use of student-athletes. I liked this social media policy because it provided a place for both student-athlete to agree and sign the policy which holds them accountable and gets the parents involved by having them sign also.

New York City Department of Education: This policy defines social media use and gives an awesome list of policies. It is user friendly and invites parents to be involved as well. My favorite policy was the “pause before you post.” It reminds users to take an extra few minutes before posting something they could potentially end up regretting.

Papillion La Vista Community School District – Papillion, NE: This district policy provides proper procedures for both students and staff. It is encouraging to know that the district that I work in is being proactive and has a well-established social media policy.

Papillion La Vista South High School – Papillion, NE: This social media within my school provides good examples of proper social media use, but I believe that it is a little outdated. I would rather refer to the district policy than our school policy.

Perris Union High School District – Perris, CA:This was the best social media policy that I found. It was well-organized, had several graphics, and was engaging to readers. It even provided explanations of why to use different platforms of social media. Their policies were descriptive, yet simple. Many of my policies were inspired by this policy.

San Dieguito Union High School District – Encinitas, CA: Although some good information was provided, I felt as though this policy could have been better. It was also not very visually pleasing. I was not very engaged while reading due to the color choice of text and lack of visuals.

Sewickley Academy – Sewickley, PA: I enjoyed this social media policy because it was organized by providing main headings and describing each category using multiple policies within. This was how I decided to set up my own policy.


EdTech 543: Social Media in the Classroom

I loved this assignment and ended up getting so much out of it! I used a combination of Google and Pinterest to explore social media projects in the classroom. As a marketing teacher, I teach a unit of social media marketing in my advanced marketing class. It was awesome to be able to discover what was out there for projects, curriculum, and activities in social media marketing. I am so excited to to use these resources in my classroom next semester.

*Updated 10/29/16* It was brought to my attention that I needed to show HOW these projects have been implemented in the classroom. Along with my Pinterest board, I have provided explanations for each on how each of these case studies or projects were successfully used to enhance the use of social media in the classroom. I added in some additional case studies and went back to describe some of my original resources to explain how they have been already implemented.

This case study from Stephen F. Austin State University examines the importance of implementing social media platforms in marketing courses. This study describes social networking, mircoblogging, media sites, and social games. In the media sites section, it discusses the use of Pinterest in the classroom as a means of having students express ideas and organize information. I would like to do this in my marketing classroom by having students create Pinterest boards about various marketing topics.

This case study describes the implementation of the benefits of using Twitter as a collaboration tool between students at the University of Leicester. This would be beneficial in a high school classroom setting for students to get assistance with homework/studying, to post questions or sharing their work.

This case study from Marquette University describes students successfully implementing a fan page to increase social media use on campus. The study increased student engagement campus-wide. This could easily be replicated in a high school setting creating and managing a page for the school that could be student ran.

This case study from Memorial University studied the success of a large enrollment classroom implementing the use of Twitter. For each week, the were to post an initial Tweet and then one follow up Tweet as a form of discussion with their classmates. The case study yielded positive results and reactions from the students. This would be beneficial to create for all 3 of my marketing 1 courses to allow for collaboration for all sections as a whole, rather than just within each class.

This article describes how social media is being utilized in classrooms today. The article gives and example of a 7th grade classroom implementing the use of Skype and Wikispaces to collaborate with students outside of the country. This would be awesome to do when teaching about international business in my marketing classes. Through social media sites such as these, communication becomes an option and learning is expanded through new experiences.

Hoot Suite University blog post: This blog post describes the use and successful implementation of HootSuite University. Teacher and blog author Karen Freberg uses this curriculum in her classroom each semester. There are numerous projects for students learning about social media marketing in the areas of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, Google+, Tumblr, ROI, branding, social media for businesses, and much more! Project activities can be found here.

This is an awesome activity created by PBS that would get marketing students thinking about the story behind a small local businesses and using Instagram in order to share a company’s history. Fun activity to share with the community and interact with one another! The use of the hashtags are active and have been utilized by many schools.

This blog post gives students a 30 day Twitter challenge. Each challenge has an example of how it was implemented in the classroom. There are fun and engaging posts for each day and it allows students to apply some of the challenges to their place of work.

Curriculum for a High School Social Media Class JEADigitalMedia.org created by Teacher Beth Phillips. This curriculum download (at the bottom of the page) is awesome! See page 3 for successful implementation of the curriculum. It would be very engaging for my students to be able to moderate Twitter chats or use Twitter to describe what they are learning in the classroom in 140 characters or less. There are several additional activities described in the curriculum.

I found this project on a blog called Sam & Scout. It is a social media inventory assignment for high school students. It was implemented by having students track their last 100 posts on the social media platform of their choice and categorize each post depending on what the post was about. Then students create a social MEdia visual that shows that percentage that each post makes up. An example is shown below. This will allow students to see what they post most about and if there are some post categories that they probably shouldn’t be posting about. It examines their digital footprint and gets them thinking about what future employers and colleges might think about their posts.


Here is the link to my Pinterest Board sharing my resources! Click on each to view and read its description. **Note: there are some additional resources that I pinned that did not show evidence of implementation, but I wanted to keep them as resources that I can use in the future 🙂

EdTech 543: PLE Diagram Reflection

Before creating my personal learning environment (PLE) diagram, I decided to break it down into for categories. I came up with explore, create, collaborate, and share. Then, I brainstormed a list of networks, resources, and tools that I utilize in each category. It wasn’t surprising that some of these ended up in multiple categories. After seeing my classmates great ideas I wanted to come up with a visual that really focused on the connection between the 4 areas. I Googled “connect” and saw a picture of hands coming together. This was my inspiration! I decided to show through icons that there is an overlap in some categories and that in order to have a beneficial PLE, they must be connected and working together. I used Piktochart to create my image and I am pleased with the finished product!

What I learned while creating this graphic is that I have really expanded my PLE. Prior to this course and other courses at Boise State, I feel as though my PLE was rather one-dimensional, sticking to social media sites, resources, and tools that I have used before and am comfortable with. I have really expanded my PLE by discovering and exploring new resources and tools. This PLE will only continue to grow as I network with others.


Image created by Ally Gilin using Piktochort

There were multiple great examples created by my classmates. Like myslef, Mary divided her PLE into 4 categories: creating, communicating, connecting, and collecting. Although her categories had a few different names than mine, our ideas where similar. I loved her puzzle piece example. We are different in a few of the icons that we chose to represent. I only use Google docs and Gmail when completing graduate work, but I didn’t really think to include those in my graphic!


Image created by Mary Carter

Jasmine had an awesome graphic using a Christmas tree has her visual. She also divided her PLE into four categories: collect, communicate, create, and collaborate. I noticed that Jasmine included Voice Thread which is a tool that I don’t use that often. She also added PowToon which is something that I will have to explore its uses! Feedly was an icon that I should have added to my PLE, but just forgot about it!


Image created by Jasmine Quezada

Katie’s Venn diagram approach was similar to my thought process of different areas overlapping. Her for areas included collecting, connecting, publishing, and reflecting. I really liked that she added the reflection aspect. This is something that I did not consider when creating my own PLE.


Image created by Katie Lauritsen

Alanna did an awesome job creating a unique Bee Hive visual. Again, it was broken down to 4 categories, the bee, sources, hive, and the new product. The man difference in our PLE’s is that I did not mention much about the “bee,” or the teaching doing the collecting. None of this would be possible without the teacher!


Image created by Alanna Shaw

Kristi divided her PLE into 4 categories as well: research, create, connect, and share. A difference from others is that she displayed her PLE as a process, using arrows to show the connection to one another. I enjoyed this about her visual. The icons that we used to describe our PLE’s were very similar. She added in Edutopia which I could have put on my graphic as well as Canvas.


Image created by Kristi Christensen

Finally, David continued the categorical trend: connecting, collecting, reflecting, and publishing. A few icons that he included in his graphic were Dropbox and a Wifi signal. I do not use Dropbox often, but think it was really important that he included the Internet. This is something that I should have added to my graphic, many of the other resources and tools would not be available without a proper Internet connection.


Image created by David Yargo

Overall, there was a common theme of dividing a PLE into 4 sections. Regardless of what each class member referred to each category as, they were similar in nature. Although a majority of the resources and tools were similar, there were some differences. This is because it is a personal learning environment and it will be unique to each individual person depending on preference. As mentioned, there were some icons that I did not have that others did that I would have benefited from including in my PLE image. This assignment reinforces that our PLE is always growing. What may work one day may be replaced by better tools or resources. This is why staying connected is vital and as educators, we should always be seeking to be life-long learners.